What is Organic Cotton
Organic by name, it is an agricultural system without the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Through this environmentally friendly approach, the reproductive and regenerative capacity of the soil can be retained.
Since it works at the grass-root level, it improves good plant nutrition and many more benefits. As per the 2020 stat, India ranks 8th of the World's organic agricultural land and 1st in the total number of producers.
In India, Madhya Pradesh followed by Gujarat, Telangana, Maharashtra, Karnataka, etc are the major cotton producers. Organic Cotton is exported from these states to outside India like the USA, European Union, Canada, Switzerland, Australia, Japan, Israel, UAE, New Zealand, Vietnam, etc.
Key Facts About Organic Cotton:
- The Indian textile industry contributes around 5 % to the nation's GDP, 14 % to industrial production, and 11 % to total export earnings.
- This industrial sector contributes to employment to over 51 million people.
- The total organic product export volume during 2019-20 was 6.389 lakh MT.
- Cotton yarn and fabrics export contribute around 23% of total India's textile export.
- During 2019-20, organic cotton yarn, handloom export products reached US$ 10.01 billion.
- Retailer brands like Carrefour, Gap, H&M, JC Penney, Macy's, Tommy Hilfiger, and Walmart imports Indian textile products.
How Organic Cotton are Grown?
According to EU requirements, Organic farming can be performed if the below conditions are satisfied:
Conversion of Organic Agriculture
Any field or crop that has to be sold out as organic products has to undergo 12 months of the conversion period. Annual crops can be sold organic after 24 months and perennial crops after 36 months of conversion.
Cotton Seed Production
Only Organic seeds and propagation material should be used rather than conventional seedlings and chemically treated seed. Our farmers shall use GMO-free seeds, and plant material. Only organic fertilizers were used to cultivate pure organic cotton. Organic manures, bio-fertilizers (rhizobium, acetobacter, mycorrhiza, etc.), bio-dynamic preparations, and botanical preparations are allowed. Natural mineral fertilizers like rock
phosphate, muriate of potash can be used only as a supplement.
Only farmer’s preparations of botanical pesticides from local plants are usually allowed. Allowed products are bio-pesticides like Bt spray, Trichoderma, NPV, pseudomonas, etc. Other products include Bordeaux mixture, soft soap, and most plant-based products like neem, pyrethrum, etc.
Pre-conditions for Cotton Cultivation
- High Temperature ideally 30 deg
- Long Vegetation period
- Dry climate
- 500 mm rainfall
- Ideal soil conditions are heavy clay soil, Deep soil
Procedure for Growing Cotton:
Organic cotton is predominantly grown in almost 20 countries worldwide, out of which turkey is the primary producer. Few other countries are India, Tanzania, China, Peru, Senegal, and more. The first stage of the cotton-growing is that planting the cottonseed. The seed is then fed
by rain or by following regular watering. Once it has grown, the farmers will then handpick the grown cotton. As stated earlier, throughout the entire process, no pesticides or chemical fertilizers are used. To see a fruitful result in growing better cotton seed variety there are other factors we
should take care of. Which includes soil-fertility management, pest management, Harvest, and post-harvest quality management.